Recuperación de los Destinos Turísticos Después de un Desastre: Una Evaluación del Scorecard de Resiliencia Turística para Destinos (SRTD)

Palabras clave: Resiliencia, Scorecard, Turismo, Destinos, Terremoto

Resumen

En el año 2015 se llevó a cabo un estudio de resiliencia en la ciudad de Manta usando como herramienta el Scorecard de Resiliencia Turística para Destino (SRTD). Los resultados de dicho estudio exhibieron debilidades significativas en la capacidad de respuesta del Departamento Turístico del cantón frente a escenarios de crisis que pudiesen afectar el destino. De igual manera se detectaron falencias en el portafolio de estrategias de recuperación y adaptación para escenarios probables de crisis. Ante las problemáticas encontradas los investigadores presentaron propuestas de mejoras, que no pudieron ser implementadas por el Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado (GAD) de Manta debido a falta de presupuesto para medidas de prevención de riesgos. En abril de 2016, exactamente un año después del estudio, un terremoto de 7.8 grados en la escala de Richter sacudió la ciudad de Manta evidenciando las falencias encontradas por el SRTD.

El presente trabajo realiza una valoración cuantitativa y cualitativa de la efectividad del SRTD al momento de evaluar la resiliencia de los destinos turísticos, mediante un estudio comparativo entre los resultados obtenidos en el 2015 y las problemáticas enfrentadas por el GAD de Manta después del terremoto. La finalidad de este estudio es verificar la precisión, confiabilidad y validez del SRTD al momento de evaluar la capacidad de resiliencia de los destinos turísticos, y por tanto comprobar en base a datos estadísticos que tan útil es la herramienta al momento de señalar las debilidades y fortalezas de los destinos frente a escenarios de riesgo.

Citas

Adger, W. N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global environmental change, 16(3), 268-281.

Adger, W. N., Hughes, T. P., Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., & Rockström, J. (2005). Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science, 309(5737), 1036-1039.

Aramberri, J., & Butler, R. (Eds.). (2005). Tourism development: issues for a vulnerable industry (Vol. 20). Channel View Publications.

Basurto-Cedeño, E. M., & Pennington-Gray, L. (2016). Tourism disaster resilience scorecard for destinations (TDRSD): The case of Manta, Ecuador. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 2(2).

Basurto-Cedeño, E. M., Pennington-Gray, L., & Basurto-Cedeño, X. (2018). Identificación riesgos en destinos turísticos: el primer paso para incrementar la resiliencia. TURYDES Revista Turismo y Desarrollo local sostenible, (junio).

Basurto-Cedeño, E. M., Pennington-Gray, L., & Matthews, J. S. (2015) PRESERVACIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL PARA EL DESARROLLO TURÍSTICO.

Becken, S. (2013). Developing a framework for assessing resilience of tourism sub-systems to climatic factors. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 506-528.

Berkes, F., & Ross, H. (2013). Community resilience: toward an integrated approach. Society & Natural Resources, 26(1), 5-20.

Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (Eds.). (2008). Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press.

Biggs, D. (2011). Understanding resilience in a vulnerable industry: the case of reef tourism in Australia. Ecology and Society, 16(1), 30.

Biggs, D., Hall, C. M., & Stoeckl, N. (2012). The resilience of formal and informal tourism enterprises to disasters: reef tourism in Phuket, Thailand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(5), 645-665.

Biggs, R., Schlüter, M., & Schoon, M. L. (Eds.). (2015). Principles for building resilience: sustaining ecosystem services in social-ecological systems. Cambridge University Press.

Boarnet, M. G. (1996). Business losses, transportation damage and the Northridge earthquake. University of California Transportation Center.

Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative research journal, 9(2), 27-40.

Briedenhann, J., & Wickens, E. (2004). Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas—vibrant hope or impossible dream?. Tourism management, 25(1), 71-79.

Brohman, J. (1996). New directions in tourism for third world development. Annals of tourism research, 23(1), 48-70.

Brown, E. D., & Williams, B. K. (2015). Resilience and Resource Management. Environmental management, 56(6), 1416-1427.

Bruneau, M., Chang, S. E., Eguchi, R. T., Lee, G. C., O'Rourke, T. D., Reinhorn, A. M., & von Winterfeldt, D. (2003). A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthquake spectra, 19(4), 733-752.

Bruner, E. M. (2005). Culture on tour: Ethnographies of travel. University of Chicago Press.

Cai, H., Lam, N. S. N., Zou, L., Qiang, Y., & Li, K. (2016). Assessing Community Resilience to Coastal Hazards in the Lower Mississippi River Basin. Water, 8(2), 46.

Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Anderies, J. M., & Abel, N. (2001). From metaphor to measurement: resilience of what to what?. Ecosystems, 4(8), 765-781.

Coburn, A. W., Spence, R. J. S., & Pomonis, A. (1992, July). Factors determining human casualty levels in earthquakes: mortality prediction in building collapse. In Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (pp. 5989-5994).

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research.

Cutter, S. L. (2016). The landscape of disaster resilience indicators in the USA. Natural hazards, 80(2), 741-758.

Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global environmental change, 18(4), 598-606.

Dahles, H., & Susilowati, T. P. (2015). Business resilience in times of growth and crisis. Annals of Tourism Research, 51, 34-50.

Davoudi, S., Shaw, K., Haider, L. J., Quinlan, A. E., Peterson, G. D., Wilkinson, C., ... & Davoudi, S. (2012). Resilience: A Bridging Concept or a Dead End?“Reframing” Resilience: Challenges for Planning Theory and Practice Interacting Traps: Resilience Assessment of a Pasture Management System in Northern Afghanistan Urban Resilience: What Does it Mean in Planning Practice? Resilience as a Useful Concept for Climate Change Adaptation? The Politics of Resilience for Planning: A Cautionary Note: Edited by Simin Davoudi and Libby Porter. Planning Theory & Practice, 13(2), 299-333.

De Sausmarez, N. (2007). Crisis management, tourism and sustainability: The role of indicators. Journal of sustainable tourism, 15(6), 700-714.

Dictionary, O. E., & Barber, K. (2006). Oxford University Press. New York.

Du Cros, H., & McKercher, B. (2014). Cultural tourism. Routledge.

Eugenio-Martín, J., Martín Morales, N., & Scarpa, R. (2004). Tourism and economic growth in Latin American countries: A panel data approach.

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.

Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global environmental change, 16(3), 253-267.

Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., Holling, C. S., & Walker, B. (2002). Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. AMBIO: A journal of the human environment, 31(5), 437-440.

Glaesser, D. (2006). Crisis management in the tourism industry. Routledge.

Herrera, G., & Rodríguez, G. (2016). RESILIENCIA Y TURISMO: EL CASO DE LA CIUDAD DE BAÑOS DE AGUA SANTA-

Holladay, P. J., & Powell, R. B. (2013). Resident perceptions of social–ecological resilience and the sustainability of community-based tourism development in the Commonwealth of Dominica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(8), 1188-1211.

Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual review of ecology and systematics, 1-23.

Jopp, R., DeLacy, T., & Mair, J. (2010). Developing a framework for regional destination adaptation to climate change. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(6), 591-605.

Leigh, N. G., & Blakely, E. J. (2013). Planning local economic development: Theory and practice. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Lew, A. A. (2014). Scale, change and resilience in community tourism planning. Tourism Geographies, 16(1), 14-22.

Lew, A. A., Ng, P. T., Ni, C. C., & Wu, T. C. (2016). Community sustainability and resilience: similarities, differences and indicators. Tourism Geographies, 18(1), 18-27.

Ludin, S. M., & Arbon, P. A. (2017). Improving community disaster resilience through scorecard self-testing. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 26(1), 13-27.

Magis, K. (2010). Community resilience: an indicator of social sustainability. Society and Natural Resources, 23(5), 401-416.

Mayunga, J. S. (2007). Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilience: a capital-based approach. Summer academy for social vulnerability and resilience building, 1, 16.

McKercher, B. (1993). The unrecognized threat to tourism: Can tourism survive ‘sustainability’?. Tourism management, 14(2), 131-136.

Neto, F. (2003, August). A new approach to sustainable tourism development: Moving beyond environmental protection. In Natural resources forum (Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 212-222). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American journal of community psychology, 41(1-2), 127-150.

Padgett, D. K. (2016). Qualitative methods in social work research (Vol. 36). Sage Publications.

Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Paton, D., Millar, M., & Johnston, D. (2001). Community resilience to volcanic hazard consequences. Natural hazards, 24(2), 157-169.

Pennington-Gray, L., Thapa, B., Kaplanidou, K., Cahyanto, I., & McLaughlin, E. (2011). Crisis planning and preparedness in the United States tourism industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 52(3), 312-320.

Ritchie, B. W. (2004). Chaos, crises and disasters: a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry. Tourism management, 25(6), 669-683.

Ruiz-Ballesteros, E. (2011). Social-ecological resilience and community-based tourism: an approach from Agua Blanca, Ecuador. Tourism Management, 32(3), 655-666.

Santana, G. (2004). Crisis management and tourism: Beyond the rhetoric. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 15(4), 299-321.

Scheyvens, R. (2007). Exploring the tourism-poverty nexus. Current issues in tourism, 10(2-3), 231-254.

Schmidtlein, M. C., Shafer, J. M., Berry, M., & Cutter, S. L. (2011). Modeled earthquake losses and social vulnerability in Charleston, South Carolina. Applied Geography, 31(1), 269-281.

Sherrieb, K., Norris, F. H., & Galea, S. (2010). Measuring capacities for community resilience. Social indicators research, 99(2), 227-247.

Sherrieb, K., Norris, F. H., & Galea, S. (2010). Measuring capacities for community resilience. Social indicators research, 99(2), 227-247.

Strickland-Munro, J. K., Allison, H. E., & Moore, S. A. (2010). Using resilience concepts to investigate the impacts of protected area tourism on communities. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(2), 499-519.

Strickland-Munro, J. K., Allison, H. E., & Moore, S. A. (2010). Using resilience concepts to investigate the impacts of protected area tourism on communities. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(2), 499-519.

Sydnor-Bousso, S. B. (2009). Assessing the impact of industry resilience as a function of community resilience: The case of natural disasters (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University).

Tobin, G. A. (1999). Sustainability and community resilience: the holy grail of hazards planning?. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 1(1), 13-25.

Walker, B. H., Carpenter, S. R., Rockstrom, J., Crépin, A. S., & Peterson, G. D. (2012). Drivers," slow" variables," fast" variables, shocks, and resilience. Ecology and Society, 17(3), 30.

Walker, B., & Salt, D. (2012). Resilience practice: building capacity to absorb disturbance and maintain function. Island Press.

Walker, B., & Salt, D. (2012). Resilience thinking: sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world. Island Press.

Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., & Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social--ecological systems. Ecology and society, 9(2), 5.

Walsh, F. (2007). Traumatic loss and major disasters: Strengthening family and community resilience. Family process, 46(2), 207-227.

Publicado
2020-04-15
Cómo citar
Basurto Cedeño, E., Pennington - Gray, L., & Basurto Cedeño, X. (2020). Recuperación de los Destinos Turísticos Después de un Desastre: Una Evaluación del Scorecard de Resiliencia Turística para Destinos (SRTD). PASOS Revista De Turismo Y Patrimonio Cultural, 18(2), 309-321. https://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2020.18.021