Destination image and revisit intention: the case of Egypt tourism


  • Mohammed Ahmed Southwest Jiaotong University


Palabras clave:

destination image, tourist satisfaction, perceived value, revisit intention, Egypt


This study aims to investigate the relationship between destination image, perceived value, satisfaction, and revisit intention in the tourism field, as well as examine the factors that affect tourists’ intention to revisit Egypt. The study also analyzes the mediating effects of tourist satisfaction and perceived value. Based on an extensive literature review, a study model and questionnaire were designed. Data were collected from international tourists and were analysed using structural equation model (SEM). The key findings show that both cognitive-affective destination image and perceived value affect tourists’ intention to revisit. The findings also indicate that the cognitive destination image and perceived value are substantial factors in influencing tourist satisfaction. Additionally, a mediating role of affective image and perceived value was found in this study. Academic contributions, management implications, and some potential ideas for future studies are also discussed.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Abbasi, G. A., Kumaravelu, J., Goh, Y. N., & Singh, K. S. D. (2021). Understanding the intention to revisit a destination by expanding the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Spanish Journal of Marketing-ESIC. 25(2), 280-307.

Agapito, D., Oom do Valle, P., & da Costa Mendes, J. (2013). The cognitive-affective-conative model of destination image: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 471-481.

Ali, F., Ryu, K., & Hussain, K. (2016). Influence of experiences on memories, satisfaction and behavioral intentions: A study of creative tourism. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33(1), 85-100.

Allameh, S. M., Pool, J. K., Jaberi, A., Salehzadeh, R., & Asadi, H. (2015). Factors influencing sport tourists’ revisit intentions: The role and effect of destination image, perceived quality, perceived value and satisfaction. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.

Al-Sabbahy, H. Z., Ekinci, Y., & Riley, M. (2004). An investigation of perceived value dimensions: implications for hospitality research. Journal of travel research, 42(3), 226-234.

Altunel, M. C., & Erkurt, B. (2015). Cultural tourism in Istanbul: The mediation effect of tourist experience and satisfaction on the relationship between involvement and recommendation intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(4), 213-221.

An, S., Suh, J., & Eck, T. (2019). Examining structural relationships among service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and revisit intention for Airbnb guests. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 19(3), 145-165.

Anand, P., Holbrook, M. B., & Stephens, D. (1988). The formation of affective judgments: The cognitive-affective model versus the independence hypothesis. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3), 386-391.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin, 103(3), 411.

Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of tourism research, 26(4), 868-897.

Beerli, A., & Martin, J. D. (2004). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of tourism research, 31(3), 657-681.

Blanthorne, C., Jones-Farmer, L. A., & Almer, E. D. (2006). Why you should consider SEM: A guide to getting started. In Advances in accounting behavioral research. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Cham, T. H., Lim, Y. M., Sia, B. C., Cheah, J. H., & Ting, H. (2020). Medical tourism destination image and its relationship with the intention to revisit: A study of Chinese medical tourists in Malaysia. Journal of China tourism research, 17(2), 163-191.

Chaulagain, S., Wiitala, J., & Fu, X. (2019). The impact of country image and destination image on US tourists’ travel intention. Journal of destination marketing & management, 12, 1-11.

Chen, C. F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?. Tourism management, 28(4), 1115-1122.

Chen, J. S., & Gursoy, D. (2001). An investigation of tourists’ destination loyalty and preferences. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 13(2), 79-85.

Chew, E. Y. T., & Jahari, S. A. (2014). Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks and revisit intention: A case of post-disaster Japan. Tourism management, 40, 382-393.

Chi, C. G. Q. (2012). An examination of destination loyalty: Differences between first-time and repeat visitors. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 36(1), 3-24.

Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism management, 29(4), 624-636.

Coban, S. (2012). The effects of the ımage of destination on tourist satisfaction and loyalty: The case of Cappadocia, 29(2), 222-232.

Cole, S. T., & Scott, D. (2004). Examining the mediating role of experience quality in a model of tourist experiences. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 16(1), 79-90.

Crompton, J. L. (1979). An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of travel research, 17(4), 18-23.

Damanik, J., & Yusuf, M. (2022). Effects of perceived value, expectation, visitor management, and visitor satisfaction on revisit intention to Borobudur Temple, Indonesia. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 17(2), 174-189.

De Nisco, A., Mainolfi, G., Marino, V., & Napolitano, M. R. (2015). Tourism satisfaction effect on general country image, destination image, and post-visit intentions. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(4), 305-317.

Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1), 39-50.

Gallarza, M. G., & Saura, I. G. (2006). Value dimensions, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty: An investigation of university students’ travel behaviour. Tourism management, 27(3), 437-452.

Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., & Garcı́a, H. C. (2002). Destination image: Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of tourism research, 29(1), 56-78.

Goodall, B. (1991). Understanding Holiday Choice. Cooper, CP (Ed.) Progress İn Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Sayı 3.

Greaves, N., & Skinner, H. (2010). The importance of destination image analysis to UK rural tourism. Marketing Intelligence & Planning.

Hadi, N. U., Abdullah, N., & Sentosa, I. (2016). Making sense of mediating analysis: A marketing perspective. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 5(2), 62-76.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective, Vol. 7.

Haji, S., Surachman, S., Ratnawati, K., & MintartiRahayu, M. (2021). The effect of experience quality, perceived value, happiness and tourist satisfaction on behavioral intention. Management Science Letters, 11(3), 1023-1032.

Han, H., & Ryu, K. (2009). The roles of the physical environment, price perception, and customer satisfaction in determining customer loyalty in the restaurant industry. Journal of hospitality & tourism research, 33(4), 487-510.

Hapsari, R., Clemes, M., & Dean, D. (2016). The mediating role of perceived value on the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: Evidence from Indonesian airline passengers, Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 388-395.

Hassan, S. B., Hamid, M. S. A., & Bohairy, H. A. (2010). Perception of destination branding measures: A case study of Alexandria destination marketing organizations. International Journal of Euro-Mediterranean Studies, 3(2), 269-288.

Hau, T. C., & Omar, K. (2014). The impact of service quality on tourist satisfaction: The case study of Rantau Abang Beach as a turtle sanctuary destination. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(23), 1827-1827.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 43(1), 115-135.

Hong, Y., Cai, G., Mo, Z., Gao, W., Xu, L., Jiang, Y., & Jiang, J. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on tourist satisfaction with B&B in Zhejiang, China: An importance–performance analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3747.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic journal of business research methods, 6(1), 53-60.

Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of business research, 59(5), 638-642.

Huang, S., & Hsu, C. H. (2009). Effects of travel motivation, past experience, perceived constraint, and attitude on revisit intention. Journal of travel research, 48(1), 29-44.

Huang, Z., Cai, L. A., Yu, X., & Li, M. (2014). A Further investigation of revisit intention: A multigroup analysis. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 23(8), 815-832.

Jalilvand, M. R., Samiei, N., Dini, B., & Manzari, P. Y. (2012). Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach. Journal of destination marketing & management, 1(1-2), 134-143.

Jeong, Y., & Kim, S. K. (2019). The key antecedent and consequences of destination image in a mega sporting event. South African Journal of Business Management, 50(1), 1-11.

Jin, N., Lee, H., & Lee, S. (2013). Event quality, perceived value, destination image, and behavioral intention of sports events: The case of the IAAF World Championship, Daegu, 2011. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 18(8), 849-864.

Kani, Y., Aziz, Y. A., Sambasivan, M., & Bojei, J. (2017). Antecedents and outcomes of destination image of Malaysia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 89-98.

Kanwel, S., Lingqiang, Z., Asif, M., Hwang, J., Hussain, A., & Jameel, A. (2019). The influence of destination image on tourist loyalty and intention to visit: Testing a multiple mediation approach. Sustainability, 11(22), 6401.

Kazemi, M., Pour, S., Saadat, F., & Bitaraf, F. (2011). The effect of tourist's mental image on the perceived value of coastal cities in the Caspian Sea.

Kim, H., & Richardson, S. L. (2003). Motion picture impacts on destination images. Annals of tourism research, 30(1), 216-237.

Kim, H., & Stepchenkova, S. (2015). Effect of tourist photographs on attitudes towards destination: Manifest and latent content. Tourism management, 49, 29-41.

Kim, J. H. (2018). The impact of memorable tourism experiences on loyalty behaviors: The mediating effects of destination image and satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 57(7), 856-870.

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.

Kozak, M., Bigné, E., & Andreu, L. (2004). Limitations of cross-cultural customer satisfaction research and recommending alternative methods. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 4(3-4), 37-59.

Ladhari, R., & Michaud, M. (2015). eWOM effects on hotel booking intentions, attitudes, trust, and website perceptions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 46, 36-45.

Lawson, F., and Baud-Bovy, M. (1977). Tourism and recreation development, a handbook of physical planning, Architectural Press.

Lee, C. K., Lee, Y. K., & Lee, B. (2005). Korea’s destination image formed by the 2002 World Cup. Annals of tourism research, 32(4), 839-858.

Lee, C. K., Yoon, Y. S., & Lee, S. K. (2007). Investigating the relationships among perceived value, satisfaction, and recommendations: The case of the Korean DMZ. Tourism management, 28(1), 204-214.

Lee, T. H. (2009). A structural model to examine how destination image, attitude, and motivation affect the future behavior of tourists. Leisure sciences, 31(3), 215-236.

Leisen, B. (2001). Image segmentation: The case of a tourism destination. Journal of services marketing.

Li, F., Wen, J., & Ying, T. (2018). The influence of crisis on tourists’ perceived destination image and revisit intention: An exploratory study of Chinese tourists to North Korea. Journal of destination marketing & management, 9, 104-111.

Li, M., Cai, L. A., Lehto, X. Y., & Huang, J. (2010). A missing link in understanding revisit intention—The role of motivation and image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(4), 335-348.

Liang, X., & Xue, J. (2021). Mediating effect of destination image on the relationship between risk perception of smog and revisit intention: A case of Chengdu. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 26(9), 1024-1037.

Lin, C. H., Morais, D. B., Kerstetter, D. L., & Hou, J. S. (2007). Examining the role of cognitive and affective image in predicting choice across natural, developed, and theme-park destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46(2), 183-194.

Loi, L. T. I., So, A. S. I., Lo, I. S., & Fong, L. H. N. (2017). Does the quality of tourist shuttles influence revisit intention through destination image and satisfaction? The case of Macao. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 115-123.

Loureiro, S. M. C., & González, F. J. M. (2008). The importance of quality, satisfaction, trust, and image in relation to rural tourist loyalty. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 25(2), 117-136.

McDougall, G. H., & Levesque, T. (2000). Customer satisfaction with services: putting perceived value into the equation. Journal of services marketing.

Meleddu, M., Paci, R., & Pulina, M. (2015). Repeated behaviour and destination loyalty. Tourism Management, 50, 159-171.

Ngoc, K. M., & Trinh, N. T. (2015). Factors affecting tourists’ return intention towards Vung Tau City, Vietnam-A mediation analysis of destination satisfaction. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 3(4).

Nunnally, J. C. (1994). The assessment of reliability. Psychometric theory.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty?. Journal of marketing, 63(4_suppl1), 33-44.

Oliver, R. L., & Swan, J. E. (1989). Consumer perceptions of interpersonal equity and satisfaction in transactions: a field survey approach. Journal of marketing, 53(2), 21-35.

Pandža Bajs, I. (2015). Tourist perceived value, relationship to satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: The example of the Croatian tourist destination Dubrovnik. Journal of Travel Research, 54(1), 122-134.

Pham, L. T. M., Do, H. N., & Phung, T. M. (2016). The effect of brand equity and perceived value on customer revisit intention: a study in quick-service restaurants in Vietnam. Acta Oeconomica Pragensia, 24(5), 14-30.

Phi, H. D., Quang, T. N., Phuong, T. H. T., & Linh, N. N. (2022). Effects of Destination Image on Revisit Intention: The Intermediate Role of Satisfaction & Words of Mouth (Empirical Evidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). Estudios de economía aplicada, 40(1), 9.

Pike, S. (2002). Destination image analysis—a review of 142 papers from 1973 to 2000. Tourism management, 23(5), 541-549.

Pike, S., & Ryan, C. (2004). Destination positioning analysis through a comparison of cognitive, affective, and conative perceptions. Journal of travel research, 42(4), 333-342.

Pizam, A., Neumann, Y., & Reichel, A. (1978). Dimensions of tourist satisfaction with a destination area. Annals of tourism Research, 5(3), 314-322.

Prayag, G. (2008). Image, satisfaction and loyalty—The case of Cape Town. Anatolia, 19(2), 205-224.

Rajesh, R. (2013). Impact of tourist perceptions, destination image and tourist satisfaction on destination loyalty: A conceptual model. PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 11(3), 67-78.

San Martín, H., & Del Bosque, I. A. R. (2008). Exploring the cognitive–affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism management, 29(2), 263-277.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. psychology press.

Soliman, M. (2019). Extending the theory of planned behavior to predict tourism destination revisit intention. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 22(5), 524-549.

Song, H. M., Kim, K. S., & Yim, B. H. (2017). The mediating effect of place attachment on the relationship between golf tourism destination image and revisit intention. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(11), 1182-1193.

Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., & Vassiliadis, C. A. (2017). Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists. Tourism management, 60, 15-29.

Tan, W. K., & Wu, C. E. (2016). An investigation of the relationships among destination familiarity, destination image and future visit intention. Journal of destination marketing & management, 5(3), 214-226.

Trung, N. V. H., & Khalifa, G. S. (2019). Impact of Destination Image Factors on Revisit Intentions of Hotel's International Tourists in Ba Ria-Vung Tau (Br-Vt) the Mediating Role of Positive Word of Mouth. International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT), 3(2), 106-115.

Um, S., Chon, K., & Ro, Y. (2006). Antecedents of revisit intention. Annals of tourism research, 33(4), 1141-1158.

UNWTO, M. (2011). Policy and practice for global tourism.

Viet, B. N., Phuc, D. H., & Nguyen, H. H. (2020). Revisit intention and satisfaction: The role of destination image, perceived risk, and cultural contact. Cogent Business & Management, 7(1), 1-20.

Wang, B., Yang, Z., Han, F., & Shi, H. (2017). Car tourism in Xinjiang: The mediation effect of perceived value and tourist satisfaction on the relationship between destination image and loyalty. Sustainability, 9(1), 22.

Wang, X., Zhang, J., Gu, C., & Zhen, F. (2009). Examining antecedents and consequences of tourist satisfaction: A structural modeling approach. Tsinghua Science and technology, 14(3), 397-406.

Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: A structural model. Tourism management, 26(1), 45-56.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of marketing, 52(3), 2-22.



Cómo citar

Ahmed, M. (2023). Destination image and revisit intention: the case of Egypt tourism. PASOS Revista De Turismo Y Patrimonio Cultural, 21(4), 681–697.