Logro de los ODM a través del turismo en la sub-región de Africa Central: Implicaciones para el desarrollo economic local de Camerún

  • Albert N. Kimbu
Palabras clave: Camerún, África Central, Desarrollo económico local, Alivio de la pobreza, Conservación del medio ambiente, Turismo sostenible

Resumen

Este artículo examina el papel y la contribución del turismo al desarrollo económico local y en persecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio uno y siete referentes a la mitigación de la probreza extrama y la sostenibilidad ambiental en la biodiversa región de Africa Central. Los conceptos de desarrollo sostenible del turismo y desarrollo económico local (en le África subsahariana) son exami-nados. A través de observaciones de campo y entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 21 partes interesadas de la industria turística de Camerún, se lleva a cabo un análisis del papel y del futuro del turismo en el desarrollo económico local y del logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 1 y 7. Los actuales desafíos que inhiben el desarrollo turístico limitando su contribución al desarrollo económico y local son identificados y un marco dentro del cual el turismo puede contribuir es propuesto.

Biografía del autor/a

Albert N. Kimbu

School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey

Citas

Bainkong, G. 2009 Kribi deep seaport: Construction begins next year. Available at: http://www.camerounlink.net/ fr/news.php? [Retrieved August 24, 2010].

Benneh, G. (Ed.) 2008 Cameroon: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/eb/arti- cle-9110775/Cameroon [Retrieved November 19,

.

Blanke, J. & Chiesa T. (Eds.) 2009 The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009: Managing in a time of turbulence. Davos: World Economic Forum.

Blanke, J. and Chiesa T. (Eds.) 2008 The travel and tourism competitiveness re- port 2008: Balancing economic development and environmental sustainability. Davos: World Eco- nomic Forum.

Bins, T. and Nel, E. 1999 “Beyond the development impasse: The role of local economic development and community self-reliance in rural South Africa”. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 37: 389-408.

Botswana Tourism Board 2007 Botswana ecotourism best practices manual. Available at: http://www.botswanatourism.co.bw/ doc/ecotourism_manual.pdf [Retrieved Novem- ber 22, 2010].

Bramwell, B. and Sharman, A. 1999 “Collaboration in local tourism policy making.” Annals of Tourism Research, 26: 392–415.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 2010 Country Profile: Cameroon. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/countryprofiles/1042937.stm [Retrieved November 10, 2010]

Butler, R. 1980 “The concept of the tourism area cycle of evolution”. Canadian Geographer, 24: 4.

Butler, R. 1991 “Tourism, environment and sustainable development.” Environmental Conservation, 18: 201–209.

Butler, R.W. 1993 “Tourism – An evolutionary approach.” In: Nelson, J.G., Butler, R.W. & Wall, G. (Eds.), Tourism and Sustainable Development: Monitoring, Planning, Management (pp.27-44). Water- loo: University of Waterloo.

Butler, R. 1996 “Problems and possibilities of sustainable tourism: The case of the Shetland Islands.” In: Briguglio, L. Butler, R., Harrison, D. & Filho, W.L. (Eds.), Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Case Studies (pp. 11-31). London: Pinter.

Butler, R.W. 1999 “Sustainable tourism: A state-of-the- art re-

view.” Tourism Geographies, 1(1): 7-25.

Cohen E. 1972 “Towards a sociology of international tour- ism.” Social Research, 39: 164–182.

Cater, E. and Goodall, B. 1992 “Must tourism destroy its resource base?” In: France, L. (Ed.), The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Tourism (pp. 85-89). London: Earth- scan Publications.

Collins, A 1999 “Tourism development and natural capital.”

Annals of Tourism Research, 26(1): 98-109.

Dieke, P. U. C. 2006 Developing tourism in Africa: Issues for pol- icy consideration. Available at: tradeinservices. mofcom.gov.cn. [Retrieved November 03, 2010].

Elvido, S. C. 2009 Biodiversité: L`exploitation minière menace les aires protégées. Available at: http://www.cam- erounlink.net/fr/news.php? [Retrieved August 26, 2010].

Emerging Markets Group 2008 Cameroon tourism destination branding: Final report. London: Emerging Markets Group Ltd.

Expansion Strategies Inc. 2002 Cameroon tourism marketing plan, Montre- al: Expansion Strategies Inc.

Fielding, N. 1993 “Qualitative interviewing”. In Gilbert N. (Ed.), Researching Social Life (pp.135-53). Lon- don: Sage.

Freeman, R. E. 1984 Strategic management: A stakeholder ap- proach. Boston: Pitman.

Frey N and George, R. 2010 “Responsible tourism management: The missing link between business owners’ attitudes

and behaviour in the Cape Town tourism indus- try.” Tourism Management, 31(5): 621-628.

Gabontour 2010 Gabon a world of natural wonders: Nation- al Tourism Office of Gabon. Available at: http:// www.legabon.org/flash/gabontour/gabontour.php [retrieved: February 02, 2011]

Hall, C. M. 2000 Tourism planning processes and relation- ships. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Hall, C.M. and Page, S.J 2006 The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: En- vironment, Space and Place. London: Routledge.

Helmsing, A. H. J. 2001 “Externalities, learning and governance: Perspectives on local economic development”. Development and Change, 32(2): 377-208.

Helmsing, A. H. J. 2002 “Decentralisation, enablement, and local governance in low income countries”. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 20: 317-340.

Helmsing, A. H. J. 2003 “Local economic development: new genera- tions of actors, policies and instruments for Africa”. Public Administration and Development 23: 67–76.

Helmsing, A. H. J. 2005 “Governance of local economic development in sub-Saharan Africa: Who are the dancers and do they act ‘in concert’?” In T. G. Egziabher & A. H. J. Helmsing (Eds.), Local economic develop- ment in Africa: Enterprises, communities and local development (pp. 300-331). Maastricht: Shaker Publishing BV.

Helmsing, A. H. J and Egziabher, T. G. 2005 “Local economic development in Africa: Introducing the issues”. In Egziabher, T.G. & Helmsing, A. H. J. (Eds.), Local economic devel- opment in Africa: Enterprises, communities and local development (pp. 1-17). Maastricht: Shaker Publishing BV.

Hinderson, D. 2003 “Connecting economic growth with poverty alleviation: South Africa’s LED challenge”. Holo- gram, 1(1): 2-7.

Horta, C. (Ed.) 2010 The World Bank Group and the Chad Cam- eroon Oil & Pipeline Project. Berlin: Group Chad

Hunter, C. 1995 “On the need to reconceptualise sustainable tourism development.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3: 155-165.

Hunter, C. 1997 “Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm.” Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4): 850-867.

Jenkins, C.L. and Henry, B.M. 1982 “Government involvement in tourism in developing countries.” Annals of Tourism Research, 9(4): 499-521.

Kaufman, D., Kraay, A. and Mastruzzi, M. 2005 Governance matters, IV: Governance indi- cators for 1996-2004, WP 2630. Washington DC: World Bank.

Kimbu, A. N. 2010 Sustainable tourism development manage- ment in Central Africa: A case study of the tour- ism industry in Cameroon. Doctoral dissertation, Nottingham Trent University. Nottingham.

Kimbu, A. N. 2011 “The role of transport and accommodation infrastructure in the development of eco/nature tourism in Cameroon”. Tourism Analysis, 16(2): 137-156. LBZG/MCBCC.

Kimbu, A. N. 2002 Limbe Botanical and Zoological Garden; our history. Online at: http://www.mcbcclimbe. org/history.shtml [Retrieved February 12, 2010].

Lukong, P.N. 2008 “America to support Cameroon’s ecotour- ism”. Cameroon Tribune. Available at: http://alla- frica.com/stories/ 200801100728.html [Retrieved November 07, 2010].

MacAllister, M. 2005 Elephants of Cameroon. Waza Anti-Poach- ing Report. Available at: http://www.fieldtrip- earth.org/article.xml?id=1189 [Retrieved Sep- tember 27, 2010].

Mason, J. 2002 Qualitative researching. London: Sage.

McCool S.F. and Moisey, R.N. 2001 Tourism, recreation and sustainability: Linking culture and the environment. Walling- ford, Oxon: CABI.

McCormick, D. 1999 “African enterprise clusters and industriali- sation: Theory and reality”. World Development, 27(9): 1531-1551.

Miller, G. and Twinning-Ward, L. 2005 Monitoring for a Sustainable Tourism Tran- sition: The Challenge of Developing and Using Indicators. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

Ministry of Tourism (MINTOUR). 2007 Annuaire des statistiques du tourisme. Ya- oundé: MINTOUR.

Muller, H. 1994 “The thorny path to sustainable tourism development”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2(3): 131-136

Nchandji, A.C. 2006 “Elephants: Poaching weapons and new ex- perience from the Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctu- ary, Cameroon”. Wildlife Justice, 3. Available at: http://www.lagaenforcement.org/ [Retrieved Oc- tober 02, 2010].

Nelson, J. 2008 Still off of the conservation map in Central Africa: Bureaucratic neglect of forest communi- ties in Cameroon. World Rainforest Movement, Forest Peoples Programme. Retrieved Novem- ber 27, 2010, from http://www.wrm.org.uy/ coun- tries/Cameroon/still.html

Ngala, K. C. 2009 “Cameroon: Fears for forest as dam construction begins”. The Post Online. Available at: http://www.postnewsline. com/2009/08/ [Retrieved November 04, 2010]

Nyang, M. and Hamerlynck, O. 2006 Rapport de suivi de l’état de la conservation de la réserve de faune de Dja en Republique du Cameroun, site de Patrimoine Mondiale. Paris: UNESCO, IUCN.

Paden, J.N. and Soja, E.W. 1970 The African Experience. Evanston: North- western University Press.

Plog, S. 1974 “Why destination areas rise and fall in popu- larity”. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Quarterly, 15: 13-16.

Riley, L. and Riley, W. 2005 Nature’s strongholds: The world’s great wildlife reserves. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rodriguez-Pose, A and Tijmstra, S. A. R. 2007 “Local economic development in sub-Saha- ran Africa. Environment and Planning C”. Gov- ernment and Policy, 25: 516-36.

Rogerson, C. M. and Rogerson, M. J. 2010 “Local economic development in Africa: Global context and research directions”. Develop- ment Southern Africa, 27(4): 465 – 480.

The Commission for Africa 2005 Our common interest: Action for a strong and prosperous Africa. London: The Commission for Africa.

Tosun, C. 2000 “Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing coun- tries”. Tourism Management, 21(6): 613–633.

UNCTAD 1999 World investment report 1999: Foreign Investment and the challenge of development. UNCTAD: Geneva.

UNDP 2011 United Nations Millennium Declaration. Retrieved August 24, 2011 from, http://www.

un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf

Unescap.org 2005 Bali declaration on sustainable tourism development. Available at: http://www.unescap. org/ttdw/Publications/TPTS_pubs/Toreview_ No26_2474/Toreview_No26_ch2.pdf [Retrieved: August 24, 2011].

UNESCO 2008 The Dja Faunal Reserve. UNESCO. Avail- able at: http://whc.unesco.org/en /list/407/docu- ments/ [Retrieved January 31, 2010].

Vivien, J. 1991 Faune du Cameroun, Guide de mammifères et poisson. Yaoundé: GICAM et Coopération Française.

Wood, R.E. 1980 “International tourism and cultural tourism in South East Asia”. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 28 (31): 561-581.

World Bank 2003 Local economic development: quick refer- ence. Washington DC: Urban Development Divi- sion, The World Bank.

World Bank 2004 Sustainable Development Reference Guide. Washington DC: World Bank

World Bank 2006 Cameroon: Forest and environment devel- opment program. Available at: http://web.world- bank.org/external/projects/main? [Retrieved January 17, 2011].

World Bank Undated What is Local Economic Development (LED)? Available at: http://web.worldbank.org/ [Retrieved August 24, 2011].

World Commission on Environment and Develop- ment (WCED) 1987 Our Common Future. London: Oxford University Press.

World Tourism Organisation (WTO) 1998 Guide for local authorities on developing sustainable tourism. Madrid: World Tourism Organisation.

World Tourism Organisation (WTO) 2002 Statement by Francesco Frangialli, Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development Johannesburg, South Africa, 29 August 2002. Available at: http://www.un.org/events/wssd/statements/wtoE.htm [Retrieved: August 24, 2011].

Publicado
2012-04-15
Cómo citar
Kimbu, A. (2012). Logro de los ODM a través del turismo en la sub-región de Africa Central: Implicaciones para el desarrollo economic local de Camerún. PASOS Revista De Turismo Y Patrimonio Cultural, 10(2), 3-16. https://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2012.10.022