La percepción de los stakeholders sobre el desarrollo turístico: el caso de la isla de São Miguel, Azores

  • Fabiana Moniz Universidade Aberta
  • João Simão Universidade Aberta
Palabras clave: turismo, impactos, stakeholders, competitividad, participaciçon, Azores, Portugal

Resumen

O turismo na Região Autónoma dos Açores, e em especial na ilha de São Miguel, tem sofrido nos últimos anos um aumento significativo que se repercute inevitavelmente em impactos a nível económico, sociocultural e ambiental. O planeamento estratégico da atividade torna-se ainda mais desafiante em territórios insulares de pequena dimensão. Neste contexto, o presente estudo tem como objetivos conhecer as perceções de diferentes stakeholders sobre os impactos do desenvolvimento turístico; a identificação dos principais motores impulsionadores/inibidores da competitividade do destino; e a caracterização do nível de envolvimento e de participação dos stakeholders locais no processo de planeamento. Metodologicamente optou-se por entrevistas semi-diretivas e análise de conteúdo a uma amostra de stakeholders da ilha de S. Miguel. Os resultados mostram que os impactos económicos positivos são os mais notados, como seria de esperar num destino em fase de crescimento, e um nível de participação pública ainda escasso.

Citas

Almeida-García, F., Peláez-Fernández, M. Á., Balbuena-Vazquez, A., & Cortes-Macias, R. 2016. “Residents' perceptions of tourism development in Benalmádena Spain)”. Tourism Management, 54, 259-274.

Andriotis, K. 2001. “Tourism Planning and Development in Crete: Recent Tourism Policies and their Efficacy”. International Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9(4): 298-316.

Araujo, L. & Bramwell, B. 1999. “Stakeholder assessment and collaborative tourism planning: the case of Brazil’s Costa Dourada Project”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7 3-4): 356-378.

Arnstein, S. R. 1969. “A ladder of citizen participation”. Journal of the American Institute of planners, 35(4): 216-224.

Bramwell, B. & Lane, B. 2000. Tourism collaboration and partnerships: politics, practice and sustainability. Clevedon: Channel View.

Butler, R. 2006. “The Tourism Area Life Cycle. Applications and Modifications”. Vol.1. Aspects of Tourism 28. Channel View Publications.

Caffyn, A. & Jobbins, G. 2003. "Governance capacity and stakeholder interactions in the development and management of coastal tourism: Examples from Morocco and Tunisia". Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11 2-3): 224-245.

Calado, H., Quintela, A. & Porteiro, J. 2007. “Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategies on Small Islands”. Journal of Coastal Research, 50, 125-129.

Campón-Cerro, A., Folgado-Fernández, J., & Hernández-Mogollón, J. 2017. “Rural destination development based on olive oil tourism: The impact of residents’ community attachment and quality of life on their support for tourism development”. Sustainability, 9(9): 1-16.

Carlsen, J. & Butler, R. (Eds.) 2011. Island tourism: Sustainable perspectives. Wallingford: CABI.

Céspedes-Lorente, J., Burgos-Jiménez, J. & Alvarez-Gil, M.J. 2003. “Stakeholders’ environmental influence. An empirical analysis in the Spanish hotel industry Scandinavian”. Journal of Management, 19, 333-358.

Chang, K., Chien, H., Cheng, H., & Chen, H. I. 2018. “The Impacts of Tourism Development in Rural Indigenous Destinations: An Investigation of the Local Residents’ Perception Using Choice Modeling”. Sustainability, 10(12): 4766.

Croes, R. 2006. “A paradigm shift to a new strategy for small island economies: Embracing demand side economics for value enhancement and long term economic stability”. Tourism Management, 27 3): 453-465.

Crouch, G. 2007. Modelling destination competitiveness. CRC for sustainable tourism. Queensland, Australia.

Crouch, G. & Ritchie, J. 1999. “Tourism, competitiveness, and societal prosperity”. Journal of Business Research, 44,137-152.

Dogan, H. 1989. “Forms of adjustment: sociocultural impacts of tourism”. Annals of Tourism Research. 16(2): 216-236.

Eusébio, C., Vieira, A. L., & Lima, S. 2018. “Place attachment, host–tourist interactions, and residents’ attitudes towards tourism development: the case of Boa Vista Island in Cape Verde”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(6): 890-909.

Flick, U. 2014. An Introduction to Qualitative Research, Londres: SAGE Publications.

Freeman, R. 1984. Strategic Management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.

Goffi, G. 2013. "A Model of Tourism Destinations Competitiveness: The case of the Italian Destinations of Excellence". Anuario Turismo y Sociedad, XIV,121-147.

Gunn, C. 1993. Tourism, Planning: Basics Concepts, Cases. Levittown: Taylor & Francis.

Guo, Y., Kim, S. & Chen, Y. 2014. “Shangai Residents’ Perceptions of Tourism Impacts and Quality of Life”. Journal of China Tourism Research, 10 2): 142-164.

Haralambopoulous, N. & Pizam, A. 1996. “Perceived impacts of tourism: The case of Samos”. Annals of Tourism Research 23 3): 503-526.

Harun, R., Chiciudean, G., Sirwan, K., Arion, F., & Muresan, I. 2018. “Attitudes and Perceptions of the Local Community towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq”. Sustainability, 10(9): 1-13.

Instituto de Turismo (IPDT)/ Governo Regional dos Açores 2016. Plano Estratégico e de Marketing do Turismo dos Açores. Disponível online em http://www.azores.gov.pt/PortalAzoresgov/external/portal/misc/PEM_ACORES2.pdf

Ivanov, S. & Webster, C. 2007. “Measuring the impact of tourism on economic growth”. Tourism Economics, 13 3): 379–388.

Kim, K. 2002. The effects of tourism impacts upon quality of life of residents in the community. PhD Dissertation. Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Disponível online [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-12062002-123337/unrestricted/Title_and_Text.pdf] consultado em 31/03/2015.

Liu, X., & Li, J. 2018. “Host perceptions of tourism impact and stage of destination development in a developing country”. Sustainability, 10(7): 1-15.

Liu, J. & Var, T. 1986. “Resident attitudes toward tourism impacts in Hawaii”. Annals of Tourism Research 13 2): 193-214.

Mason, P. 2003. Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

McDowall, S. & Choi, Y. 2010. “A Comparative Analysis of Thailand Residents' Perception of Tourism's Impacts”, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 11 1): 36-55.

Moniz, A. 2006. A sustentabilidade do turismo em ilhas de pequena dimensão: o caso dos Açores. Doutoramento em Ciências Económicas e Empresariais na especialidade de Desenvolvimento Económico e Social e Economia Pública. Ponta Delgada: Universidade dos Açores

Muresan, I., Oroian, C., Harun, R., Arion, F., Porutiu, A., Chiciudean, G., Todea, A, & Lile, R. 2016. “Local residents’ attitude toward sustainable rural tourism development”. Sustainability, 8(1): 1-14.

Observatório do Turismo dos Açores 2008. A qualidade do destino açores na perspetiva dos turistas: principais conclusões. Observatório Regional do Turismo. Disponível online em: http://www.observatorioturismoacores.com/data/1265043369.pdf.

Oliveira e Sá, D. 2014. Competitividade de destinos turísticos no âmbito da Gestão. O caso do Porto. Dissertação de Mestrado. Universidade de Aveiro.

Özel, Ç. H., & Kozak, N. 2017. “An exploratory study of resident perceptions toward the tourism industry in Cappadocia: a Social Exchange Theory approach”. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(3): 284-300.

Quivy, R. & Campenhoudt, L. 1995. Manual de Investigação em Ciências Sociais. Lisboa: Gradiva.

Rasoolimanesh, M., Jaafar, M., & Ramayah, T. 2017. “Factors Influencing Residents’ Perceptions toward Tourism Development: Differences across Rural and Urban World Heritage Sites”. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6): 760–775.

Rietbergen, S. Hammond, T. Sayegh, C., Hesselink F. & Mooney, K. 2007. Island voices – island choices: Developing strategies for living with rapid ecosystem change in small islands. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Ritchie, J. & Crouch, G. 2000. “The competitive destination: a sustainable perspective”, Tourism Management, 21, 1-7.

Ritchie, J. & Crouch, G. 2003. The competitive destination: a sustainable tourism perspective. Wallingford: CABI.

Sánchez-Cañizares, S. M., Castillo Canalejo, A. M., & Núñez Tabales, J. M. 2016. “Stakeholders' perceptions of tourism development in Cape Verde, Africa”. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(10): 966-980.

Santos, C., Couto, G., Pimentel, P.M. & Vieira, J.C. 2012. "Quality of the Azores destination in the perspective of tourists", Tourism and Hospitality Research 12 1): 32 - 42.

Sautter, E. & Leisen, B. 1999. “Management stakeholders: a tourism planning model”. Annals of Tourism Research, 26 2): 312-328.

Scheyvens, R. & Momsen, J. 2008. “Tourism in Small Island States: From Vulnerability to Strengths”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16 5): 491-510.

Sharpley, R. 2012. “Island Tourism or Tourism on Islands”. Tourism Recreation Research, 37(2): 167-172.

Sharpley, R. 2014. “Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the research”. Tourism Management, 42, 37-49.

Sheldon, P. 2005. The Challenges to Sustainability in Tourism Islands. Ocasional Paper 2005-01. University of Hawai, Manoa. Disponível online em https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237594447_The_Challenges_to_Sustainability_in_Island_Tourism

Silva, F. & Umbelino, J. (Coord.) 2017. Planeamento e Desenvolvimento Turistico. Lisboa: Lidel.

Silva, F. 2013. Turismo na natureza como base do desenvolvimento turístico responsável nos Açores. Doutoramento em Geografia. Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território.

Simão, J., & Môsso, A. 2013. “Residents' perceptions towards tourism development: the case of Sal Island”. International Journal of Development Issues, 12(2): 140-157.

Simão, J. N., & Partidário, M. D. R. 2012. “How does tourism planning contribute to sustainable development?”. Sustainable Development, 20(6): 372-385.

Swarbrooke, J. 1999. Sustainable Tourism Management. Londres: CABI Publishing.

Timothy, D. 1998. "Cooperative tourism planning in a developing destination". Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6 1): 52-68.

Tosun, C. 2000. “Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries”. Tourism Management, 21, 613-633.

Tufte, T. & Mefalopulos, P. 2009. Participatory Communication. A Practical Guide. World Bank Working Paper nº 170. Washington, D.C. Disponivel online: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/682081468166154717/pdf/499270PUB0comm101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Turismo de Portugal I.P. 2017. Estratégia Turismo 2027. Turismo de Portugal I.P.

Wall, G. & Mathieson, A. 2006. Tourism: Change, Impacts, Opportunities. Essex: Pearson.

Woosnam, K. M., Draper, J., Jiang, J. K., Aleshinloye, K. D., & Erul, E. 2018. “Applying self-perception theory to explain residents' attitudes about tourism development through travel histories”. Tourism Management, 64, 357-368.

Wright, D., & Sharpley, R. 2018. Local community perceptions of disaster tourism: the case of L'Aquila, Italy. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(14): 1569-1585.

WTO 1993. Sustainable tourism development: guide for local planners. Madrid: WTO.

WTTC, WTO & The Earth Council 1993. Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry – towards environmentally sustainable development. London: WTTC, WTO and the Earth Council.

WTTC 2017. Travel and Tourism. Economic Impact 2017 World. United Kingdon: WTTC.

Zhu, H., Liu, J., Wei, Z., Li, W., & Wang, L. 2017. “Residents’ attitudes towards sustainable tourism development in a historical-cultural village: Influence of perceived impacts, sense of place and tourism development potential”. Sustainability, 9(1): 1-15.

Publicado
2019-10-16
Cómo citar
Moniz, F., & Simão, J. (2019). La percepción de los stakeholders sobre el desarrollo turístico: el caso de la isla de São Miguel, Azores. PASOS Revista De Turismo Y Patrimonio Cultural, 17(5), 975-988. Recuperado a partir de //ojsull.webs.ull.es/index.php/Revista/article/view/1648