Challenging immateriality: Outline for a valuation model of invisible (and visible) heritage


  • Ana Calapez Gomes Universidade de Lisboa


Palabras clave:

creative tourism, heritage valuation, intangible cultural heritage, integrated rural tourism, stakeholder cooperation, mentoring


The objective of this paper is the presentation of a valuation model for immaterial heritage, specially conceived for high mistrust and low communication contexts. The problematic of heritage valuation is closely linked with tourism, and immaterial heritage has been acquiring relevance in the process of cultural and creative tourism development. For its part, local harnessing of the benefits of tourism, namely in rural contexts, is very much dependent on the stakeholders’ capacity to organize themselves and cooperate in order to create valuable tourist experiences. The valuation model presented is built on a combination of former propositions (Lopes, 2012; Lupo, 2007; Saxena and Ilbery, 2008) and the preliminary results of a research project in the area of immaterial (partially invisible) heritage.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Ashkenas, R.D. 1995. The Boundaryless Organization, Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Aylward, E. 2009. RuralTourism Development: Proposing an Integrated Model for Rural Stakeholder Network Relationships. Waterford: W. I. Technology, Ed.

Binkhorst, E. and Den Dekker, T. 2009. “Agenda for Co-creation Tourism Experience Research”. Journal of Hospitality, Marketing and Management, 18(2-3): 311-327.

Bousset, J. P., Skuras, D., Tesitel, J., Marsat, J.B., Petrou, A., Fiallo-Pantziou, E., Kusová, D. and Barto, M. 2007. “A Decision Support System for Integrated Tourism Development: Rethinking Tourism Policies and Management Strategies”. Tourism Geographies, 9(4): 387-404.

Castells, M. 2010. The Rise of the Network Society: The information age, economy, society and culture. Malden, Oxford: John Wiley and Sons.

Costa, R. and Valera, A. 2008. A Lenda da Fraga da Pena. Fornos de Algodres: Terras de Algodres -Associação de Promoção do Património de Fornos de Algodres.

Council of Europe 2010. Cultural Routes on SME’s Innovation and Competitiveness. Provisional Edition. Council of Europe. Available at: (accessed in december, 2013)

Emery, S. and Franks, J. 2012. “The potential for collaborative agri-environmental schemes in England: Can a well designed collaborative approach address farmers’ concerns with current schemes?”. Journal of Rural Studies, 28: 218-231.

Gomes, A. 2010. “Frutos em Rede: Estrutura e Dinâmica da Pera Rocha do Oeste”. In A. Gomes, M. C. Maneschy, S.

Magalhães, & J. M. Carvalho Ferreira, Organização Social do Trabalho e Associativismo no Contexto da Mundialização: Estudos em Portugal, África e Amazónia (pp. 241-271). Belém, PA: UFPA/NUMA. 2011 Territorialização e Identidade Regional: Os Perais da Costa Oeste Portuguesa. In M. C. Maneschy, A. Gomes, & I. Gonçalves, Dos dois Lados do Atlântico: trabalhadores, organizações e sociabilidades (pp.113-139). Belém, PA: Paka-Tatu.

Gomes, A. and Maneschy, M. C. 2011. “Communication and Power in Collaborative Networks: The Hypothesis of Technology as Confidence Enhancer”. In L. Camarinha-Matos, A. Pereira-Klen, & H. Afsarmanesh, Adaptation and Value Creating Collaborative Networks (pp. 19-26). Heidelberg: Springer.

Hofstede, G. 1991. Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGrow Hill.

Gomes, A. and Souza, C. 2013. “The Missing Link: A Critical Analysis of the Roots of Non-Cooperation”. Lusophone Management and Administration Review, 1(1): 5-15.

Hosszú, S. 2009. Counterurbanization:a literature study, Danish Institute of Rural Research and Development (IFUL). Working Paper 6/2009. Available at: Iful/Formidling /IFUL_WP_6_Counterurbanization.pdf (accessed in december, 2013)

House, R.,Hanges, P. Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. and Gupta, V. 2004. Culture, Leadership and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Lamara, H. 2011. Les Deux Piliers de la Construction Territoriale: Coordination des Acteurs et Ressources Territoriales. Developpement Durable et Térritoires, 2-3. Available at: (accessed in december, 2013)

Lipietz, A. 1995. “De la Régulation des Espaces aux Espaces de Régulation”. In R. Boye, & Y. Saillard, Théorie de la régulation. État des savoirs. Paris: Ed. La découverte Available at: php?article569 (accessed in december, 2013)

Lopes, A. 2012. Fundamentos da Gestão de Pessoas: Para uma Síntese Epistemológica da Iniciativa, da Competição e da Cooperação. Lisboa: Sílabo.

Lupo, E. 2007. “Intangible Cultural Heritage Valorization: A New Field for Design Research and Practice”. Emerging Trends in Design Research. Hong Kong: International Association of Societies of Design Research, 1-19.

Marschall, S. 2012. “Tourism and Memory”. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(4): 2216-2219.

McDonald, R. and Jolliffe, L. 2003. “Cultural Rural Tourism: Evidence from Canada”. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(2): 307-322.

Miettinen, S. 2008. “Creative Tourism as a Tool for Local Empowerment”. In G. W. Richards, From Cultural Tourism to Creative Tourism (Part 4). Arnhem: Atlas, 55-65

Ohe, Y. and Kurihara, S. 2013. “Evaluating the Complementary Relationship Between Local Brand Farm Products and Rural Tourism: Evidence from Japan”. Tourism Management, 35: 278-283.

Panyik, E., Costa, C. and Rátz, T. 2011. “Implementing Integrated Rural Tourism: an Event-Based Approach”. Tourism Management, 32(2),:1352-1363.

Pesteil, P. 2001. “Au Carrefour de l’Économique et du Culturel: La Filière Castanéicole Corse comme Marqueur de L’identité”. Études Rurales, 157-58: 221-228.

Richards, G. 2011b. “Creativity and Tourism. The State of the Art”. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1225-1253.

b. “Critical Review: Increasing the Attractiveness of Places through Cultural Ressources.” Tourism, Culture & Communication, 10, 1-12. Available at:­SING_THE_ATTRACTIVENESS_OF_PLACES_THROUGH_CULTURAL_RESOURCES (accessed in december, 2013)

a. “Cultural Tourism Trends in Europe: A Context for the Develoment of Cultural Routes”. In R. Khovanova-Rubicondo, Impact of European Cultural Routes on SME’s Innovation and Competitiveness (pp. 21-39). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

a. “Tourism Develoment Trajectories. From Culture to Creativity?”. Tourism & Management Studies (6), 9-15. Available at:­ries_From_culture_to_creativity (accessed in december, 2013)

Ritzer, G. 2014. “Prosumption: Evolution, revolution, or eternal return to the same?”. Journal of Consumer Culture, 14(1): 3-24.

Saxena, G., Gordon, C., Oliver, T. and Ilbery, B.

“Conceptualizing Integrated Rural Tourism”. Tourism Geographies, 9 (4): 347-370.

Saxena, G. and Ilbery, B. 2008. “Integrated Rural Tourism: A Border Case Study”. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(1): 233-254.

Sherif, M.

“Superordinate Goals in the Reduction of Intergroup Conflict”. The American Journal of Sociology, 63(4): 349-356.

The Economist 2010. December 16 “Chinese Tourists: A New Grand Tour”. The Economist (1-7) . Available at: http:// (accessed in december, 2013)

UNWTO 2011. Annual Report. World Tourism Organization. Available at: sites/all/files/pdf/annual_report_2011.pdf (accessed in december, 2013)

Tourism Highlights. Available at:­-2014-edition (accessed in april, 2015)

Valera, A. 2008. “A Divulgação do Conhecimento em Arqueolgia: Reflexões em Torno de Fundamentos e Experi­ências.” Praxis Archaeologica (3): 9-23.

Van Dam, F., Heins, S. and Elbersen, B.S. 2002. “Lay discourses of the rural and stated and revealed preferences for rural living. Some evidence of the existence of a rural idyll”. The Netherlands Journal of Rural Studies, 18: 461-476.

Z_Punkt 2012. New Chinese Tourists in Europe from 2017. Hanover: TUI AG. Available at: fileadmin/be_user/D_News/D_2012_06_Newsletter/New_Chinese_Tourists_in_Europe_from_2017_en.pdf (accessed in december, 2013)



Cómo citar

Gomes, A. C. (2015). Challenging immateriality: Outline for a valuation model of invisible (and visible) heritage. PASOS Revista De Turismo Y Patrimonio Cultural, 14(1), 59-73.