O contributo da experiência turística para o desenvolvimento do turismo nos destinos rurais: uma revisão da literatura

Bárbara Manuela de Jesus Mateiro

Resumen


As áreas rurais têm vindo a ganhar outra dinâmica económica, social e cultural, que resulta, não só, mas também da prática turística. Principalmente, a partir do novo milénio, houve a necessidade dos destinos se adaptarem a novas modalidades turísticas, como é o caso do turismo rural, que privilegiam a pequena escala, o contacto direto com as comunidades locais, bem como com os recursos naturais e culturais. Isto resulta da alteração que ocorreu no comportamento dos visitantes, onde estes são cada vez mais sensíveis às experiências turísticas. Tais factos salientam a importância de compreender e mensurar a experiência turística, assim como o seu impacte no desenvolvimento sustentável dos destinos rurais. Deste modo, com base numa revisão da literatura publicada nas últimas três décadas e meia, procurou-se compreender o estado da arte da experiência turística, identificando as dimensões que lhe têm vindo a ser atribuídas. Adicionalmente pretendeu-se perceber como estas podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento turístico das áreas rurais. Os resultados evidenciam que a experiência turística tem diferentes dimensões que foram evoluindo e que variam de acordo com diferentes autores. Esta dificuldade de mensuração leva a que seja igualmente difícil perceber o verdadeiro impacte que as experiências turísticas possuem no desenvolvimento do turismo nas áreas rurais.

Palavras-chave: Economia de experiencias; Experiência turística; Desenvolvimento turístico; Áreas rurais; Turismo rural; Revisão da literatura.

The contribution of tourism experience to the development of tourism in rural destinations: a literature review

Abstract: Rural areas have taken on new economic, social and cultural dynamism, as a result, not exclusively, but to a large extent, of the development of tourism. From the beginning of the 21st century, destinations have had to adapt to new forms of tourism, such as rural tourism, with all of its advantages such as small scale and direct contact with local communities as well as natural and cultural resources. This is a result of the change that has occurred in the behaviour of visitors, who tend to quest experiences rather than consumption of place. These facts underscore the importance of understanding and measuring tourist experience, as well as its impact on the sustainable development of rural destinations. Thus, based on a review of the relevant literature of the last three and a half decades, we aim at understanding the state of the art in tourism experiences, and to dimensions the parameters by which these are measured. Additionally, we attempt to grasp how tourism experiences feed into the development of tourism in rural areas. The results show that tourism experiences mean different things to different people. The difficulties encountered in applying quantitative measurement make it equally complicated to gauge the true impact that tourism experiences have on the development of tourism in rural areas.

Keywords: Experience economy; Tourist experience; Tourist development; Rural areas; Rural tourism; Literature review.


Palabras clave


economia de experiencias; experiência turística, desenvolvimento turístico, áreas rurais; turismo rural; revisão da literatura

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