Rituales ocultos. Protegiendo la cultura de la mirada turística

  • Jeremy Boissevain
  • Ramón Hernandez Armas
Palabras clave: Turismo cultural, Ritual, Impacto sociocultural, Identidad, Mercantilización cultural

Resumen

El turismo cultural está en auge y con él una nueva subjetividad turística que tiende a buscar cada vez más los ámbitos más ‘auténticos’ de las culturas visitadas. Sin embargo, estos deseos violentan frecuentemente las fronteras que establecen las sociedades receptoras entre lo que desean exponer al visitante y lo que no. Este artículo abordará las respuestas locales a esta situación, especialmente ilustrativas en relación a sus representaciones festivas.

Biografía del autor/a

Jeremy Boissevain

Jeremy Boissevain es Catedrático Emérito de Antropología Social de la Universidad de Amsterdam. Consulting Editor de las revistas: Ethnologia Europaea, Mast, Annals of Tourism Research, Anthropological Journal on European Cultures, Focaal. Journal of Mediterranean Studies

Ramón Hernandez Armas

Ramón Hernández Armas es profesor de antropología social en la Universidad de La Laguna y desarrolla su tesis doctoral en antropología del turismo

Citas

Abram, S. 1996 “Reactions to Tourism: a View from the Deep, Green Heart of France”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Coping with Tourists. European Reactions to Mass Tourism. Providence & Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp: 174-203.

Berghe, P.L. van den 1994 The Quest for the Other. Ethnic Tourism in San Cristobal, Mexico. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Berghe, P.L. van den y Keyes, C.F. 1984 “Introduction. Tourism and ReCreated Ethnicity”, Annals of Tourism Research II:343-352.

Bofill, J. 1985 “Participatory Education”, en: K. Wain (ed.), Lifelong Education and Participation. Malta: University of Malta Press. pp: 49-60.

Boissevain, J. 1984 “Ritual Escalation in Malta”, en: E.R.Wolf, (ed.), Religion, Power and Pro- test in Local Communities. New York: Mouton. pp: 163-I 83.

Boissevain, J. 1988 “More Fireworks for the Saints: Ritual and the Quest for Identity in Malta”, en: I.M. Greverus, K. Köstlin & H. Schil- ling (eds.), Kulturkontakt Kulturkon- flikt. Zur Erfahrung des Fremden. Frankfurt: Institut für Kulturanthropologic und Europäische Ethnologic. Vol. I. pp: 71-77.

Boissevain, J. 1989 “Tourism as Anti-Structure”, en: C. Giordano et al. (eds.), Kulturanthropologisch. Eine Festschrifr für Ina-Maria Greverus. Notizen Nr. 30. Frankfurt: University of Frankfurt. pp:145-159.

Boissevain, J. 1991a “Nieuwe feesten: ritueel, spel en identiteit”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Feestelijke Vernieuwing in Nederland? Amsterdam: P.J. Meertens-Instituut. pp: 1-14.

Boissevain, J. 1991b “Ritual, Play and Identity: Changing Patterns of Celebration in Maltese Villages”, The Journal of Mediterranean Studies I:87-100.

Boissevain, J. 1992a Revitalizing European Rituals. Lon- don: Routledge.

Boissevain, J. 1992b “Introduction: Revitalizing European Rituals”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Revitalizing European Rituals. London: Routledge. pp: 1-19.

Boissevain, J. 1994 “Towards an Anthropology of European Communities?”, en: V.A. Goddard, J.R. Llobera & C. Shore (eds.), The Anthropology of Europe. Identity and Boundaries in Conflict. Oxford- Providence: Berg. pp: 41-56.

Boissevain, J. 1996a “Introduction”, in: J. Boissevain (ed.), Coping with Tourists. European Reactions to Mass Tourism. Providence- Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp: 1-26.

Boissevain, J. 1996b “Ritual, Tourism and Cultural Commoditization. Culture by the Pound?”, in: T. Selwyn (ed.), The Tourist Image: Myths and Myth Making in Tourism. London-New York: John Wiley & Sons). pp: 105-120.

Boissevain, J. 1996c “«But We Live Here». Perspectives on Cultural Tourism in Malta”, in: L. Briguglio et al. (eds.), Sustainable Tour- ism in Islands and Small States: Case Studies (London: Pinter) pp: 220-239.

Boissevain,J. y Sammut, N. 1994 Mdina: Its Residents and Cultural Tourism. Findings and Recommendations. (Report) (Malta: Med-Campus Euromed Sustainable Tourism Network, University of Malta).

Bravo, G.L. 1984 Festa contadina e societ.à complessa. Milano: Angeli.

Cohen, E. 1988 “Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research, 15:371-386.

Cohen, E. 1989 “Primitive and Remote. Hill Tribe Trekking in Thailand”, Annals of Tour- ism Research, 6:30-61.

Cram, M. 1992 “Pilgrims, ‘Yuppies’, and Media Men: The Transformation of an Andalusian Pilgrimage”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Re- vitalizing European Rituals. London: Routledge. pp: 85-112.

Cram, M. 1996 “Contested Territories: The Politics of Touristic Development at the Shrine of El RocIo in Southwestern Andalusia”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Coping with Tourists. European Reactions to Mass Tourism. Providence-Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp: 27-55.

Cremona, V. A. 1995 “Carnival in Gozo: Waning Traditions and Thriving Celebrations”, Journal of Mediterranean Studies 5:28-98.

Cruces, F. y Díaz de Rada, A. 1992 “Public Celebrations in a Spanish Valley”, in: J. Boissevain (ed.), Revitaliz- ing European Rituals. London: Routledge. pp:62-79.

Dekker, T. 1993 “Paasvuren: een veranderlijke traditie tussen toerisme en lokale identiteit”, Volkskundig Bulletin 19:73-104.

Driessen, H. 1985 “Mock Battles between Moors and Christians. Playing the Confrontation of Crescent with Cross in Spain’s South”, Ethnologia Europaea 15:105-115.

Droog, M. 1991 ‘En dan word jeweergewoon mens’ Hetopleven van feesten in een Oos- tenrzjks dorp. Unpublished M.A. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Amsterdam.

Dubisch, J. 1995 In a Different Place. Pilgrimage, Gen- der and Politics at a Greek Island Shrine. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fabre, D. y Camberoque, Ch. 1977 La fête en Languedoc. Regardssurle carnaval d’aujourdhui. Toulouse: Privat. Featherstone, M. (1991). Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage.

Gallini, C. 1981 “Le nuove feste”, en: C. Bianco y M. Del Ninno (eds.), Festa: Antropologia e Semiotica. Firenze: Nuova Guraraldi. pp:104-116.

Ginkel, R. van 1994 “Old ‘Sunderklaas’: A Texelian Feast as a Referent of Identity”, en: J. Verrips (ed.), Transactions: Essays in Honor of Jeremy F. Boissevain. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis pp: 65-79.

Graburn, N. 1983 “The Anthropology of Tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research 10:9-33.

Graburn, N. 1989 “Tourism: The Sacred Journey”, en: V. Smith (ed.), Hosts and Guests. The Anthropology of Tourism (2nd edn.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp:21-36.

Greenwood, D. D. 1989 “Culture by the Pound: An Anthropological Perspective on Tourism as Cultural Commoditization”, en: V. Smith (ed.), Hosts and Guests. The Anthropology of Tourism (2nd edn.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp:171-185.

Grimaldi, P. 1996 Tempi Grassi TempiMagri. Percorsietnografici (2nd edn.). Torino: Omega.

Heisloot, J. 1981 “De verspreiding van het carnaval in Nederland na 1945. Enkele voorlopige vooronderstellingen”, en: Carnaval: niet van gist eren. ‘s-Hertogenbosch: Het Noordbrabants Genootschap. pp: 27-55. Ketting, H. (1990). De Amsterdamse kermis: een feest dat verdween 1813-1871. Unpublished M.A. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Amsterdam.

Heisloot, J. 1991 “Een feest dat verdween. De Amsterdamse kermis 1813-1871”, Skript. Historisch Tijdschrzft 13:67-78.

Koster, A.; Kuiper, Y. y Verrips, J. (eds.) 1983 Feest en ritueel in Europa. Antropologische essays. Amsterdam: VU Boekhandel/Uitgeverij.

Lett, J. W. 1983 “Ludic and Liminoid Aspects of Charter Yacht Tourism in the Caribbean”, Annals of Tourism Research 10:35-56.

MacCannell, D. 1976 The Tourist. A New Theory of the Leisure Class. New York: Shocken Books.

Maddox, R. F. 1986 Religion, Honor and Patronage. A Study of Culture and Power in an Andalusian Town. 2 vols. Stanford University Ph.D. (Ann Arbor University Microfilms).

Nogués Pedregal, A. M. 1996 “Tourism and Self-Consciousness in a South Spanish Coastal Community”, en J. Boissevai (ed.), Coping with Tourists: European Reactions to Mass Tour- ism. Providence-Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp:56-83.

Odermatt, P. 1996 “A Case of Neglect? The Politics of (Re)presentation: a Sardinian Case”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Coping with Tourists: European Reactions to Mass Tour- ism. Providence-Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp: 84-111.

Pi-Sunyer, O. 1989 “Changing Perceptions of Tourism and Tourists in a Catalan Resort Town”, en: V. Smith (ed.), Hosts and Guests. The Anthropology of Tourism (2nd edn.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp: 187-199.

Pollard, J. y Rodriquez, R. D. 1993 “Tourism and Torremolinos. Recession or Reaction to Environment?”, Tourism Management, 14: 247-258.

Poppi, C. 1992 “Building Differences: The Political Economy of Tradition in the Ladin Carnival of the Val di Fassa”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Revitalizing European Rituals. London: Routledge. pp: 113-136.

Puijk, R. 1996 “Dealing with Fish and Tourists: A Case Study from Northern Norway”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Coping with Tourists: European Reactions to Mass Tourism. Providence-Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp: 204-226.

Smith, V. 1989 ‘Introduction’, en: V. Smith (ed.), Hosts and Guests. The Anthropology of Tourism (2nd edn.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp: 1-17.

Stott, M. 1979 “Tourism in Mykonos. Some Social and Cultural Responses”, Mediterranean Studies, I:70-90.

Testa, R. M. 1992 After the Fire. The Destruction of the Lancaster County Amish. Hanover, New Hampshire-London: University Press of New England.

Turner, V. 1957 Schism and Continuity in an African Society. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Turner, V. 1969 The Ritual Process. Structure and Anti-Structure. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Urry, J. 1990 The Tourist Gaze. Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage.

Vermeulen, H. y Govers, C. 1997 “From Political Mobilization to the Politics of Consciousness”, en: C. Govers & H. Vermeulen (eds.), The Politics of Ethnic Consciousness. London: MacMillan Press Ltd. pp: 1-30.

Weber-Kellerman, I. 1985 Saure Wochen Frohe Feste. Fest und Alitag in der Sprache der Bräuche. München Luzern: Bucher.

Werdmölder, J. 1979 “Karnaval anders bezien. Een studie naar het organisatorische aspect van het karnaval te Venlo” Volkskundig Bulletin, 5:1-20.

Wijers, C. 1995 Prinsen en Clowns in het Limburgse Narrenrzyk. Het carnaval in Simpelveld en Roermond 1945-1992. Amsterdam: P.J. Meertens Instituut.

Wood, R. E. 1984 “Ethnic Tourism, the State, and Cul- tural Change in South East Asia”, Annals of Tourism Research, II:353-374.

Zarkia, C. 1996 “Philoxenia: Receiving Tourists — but not Guests — on a Greek Island”, en: J. Boissevain (ed.), Coping with Tourists: European Reactions to Mass Tourism. Providence & Oxford: Berghahn Books. pp: 143-173.

Publicado
2005-05-28
Cómo citar
Boissevain, J., & Hernandez Armas, R. (2005). Rituales ocultos. Protegiendo la cultura de la mirada turística. PASOS Revista De Turismo Y Patrimonio Cultural, 3(2), 217-228. https://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2005.03.017