Factores psicosociales y formación de imágenes en el turismo urbano: un estudio de caso sobre Madrid

  • José Manuel Castaño
  • Alfredo Moreno
  • Antonio Crego
Palabras clave: Turismo, Motivación, Imagen destino, Factores psicosociales

Resumen

Este artículo trata de analizar la influencia de diversos factores psicosociales sobre la imagen que los visitantes tienen de un destino. Se ha analizado las respuestas que dieron a un cuestionario dos muestras compuestas por  visitantes (N= 1200 y 2000) que se encontraban en entornos turísticamente significativos de Madrid. Mediante este cuestionario se recogió información sobre variables sociodemo- gráficas, características de la estancia en la ciudad (tipo de acomodación, duración, frecuencia de visitas), motivación primaria y secundaria, satisfacción con los distintos servicios e  imagen del destino (medida con una escala tipo Likert de cinco intervalos compuesta por 15 items sobre infraestructuras y servicios, oferta de ocio y cultura, características de los anfitriones, etc). Se han realizado contrastes de independencia entre las variables referidas a las características de la estancia, variables sociodemográficas y psicológicas. Además se ha contrastado, mediante análisis de regresión, la influencia de estas variables sobre la imagen-destino de Madrid.

Biografía del autor/a

José Manuel Castaño

José Manuel Castaño. Departamento de Ciencias Sociales. Ärea de conocimiento: Psicología Social. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación y del Turismo.

Alfredo Moreno

Alfredo Moreno. Departamento de Economía Financiera y Contabilidad II. Área de conocimiento: Estadística Aplicada. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación y del Turismo

Antonio Crego

Antonio Crego. Departamento de Ciencias Sociales. Ärea de conocimiento: Psicología Social. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación y del Turismo.

Citas

Ahmed, Z.U. 1991 “The Influence of the Components of a State’s Tourist Image on Product Positioning Strategery”. Tourism Mangement, 12: 331-340.

Baloglu S. y McCleary K.W. 1999 “A model of destination imagen formation”, Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (1): 868-897.

Baloglu, S. 1997 “The Relationship between Destination Images and Sociodemographi and Trip Characteristics of International Travelers”. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 3: 221-233.

Baloglu, S. y Brinberg, D. 1997 “Affective Images of Tourism Destinations”. Journal of Tourism Research, 35 (4): 11-15.

Baloglu, S. 1998 “An Empirical Investigation of Attitude Theory for Tourism Destinations: A Comparison of Visitors and Non- visitors”. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 22: 221-224.

Burkart, A.J. y Medlik, S. 1974 1981 (2ª ed.). Tourism: Past, Present and Future. Aix-en-Provence: Les Cahiers du Tourisme.

Castaño, J.M.; Saez, A; García, S. y Crego, A. 2003. “Aproximación psicosocial a la motivación turística”. Revista de Estudios Turísticos (Instituto de Estudios Turísticos), 158: 5-43.

Chon, K. 1990. “Traveler Destination Image. Modification Process and its Marketing im- plications”. Developments in Marketing Science, 13: 480-482.

Crompton, J. 1990. “Structure of vacation destination choice sets”. Annals of Tourism Re- search, 17 (3): 420-435.

Crompton, J. 1979a. “An assesment of the Image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image”. Journal of Travel Research,17: 18-23.

Crompton, J. y Ankomah, P. K. 1993. “Choice set propositions in destination decisions”. Annals of Tourism Research, 20 (3): 461-476.

Crompton, J.L. 1979b. “Motivations for pleasure vacation”. Annals of Tourism Research, 6: 408-424.

Dann, G. M. S. 1977. “Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism”. Annals of Tourism Research. 4: 184-194.

Dann, G. M. S. 1996. “Tourist Images of a Destination: An alternative analysis”. En Fesen- maier, D.R. O’Leary, J. T. y Uysal, M. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Tourism Marketing Research (pp. 41-55). Neyw York: The Haworth Press.

Dann, G. M. S. 1983. “Comment on Iso-Ahola’s Toward a Social Psychological Theory of Tourism Motivation”. Annals of Tourism Research, 10: 273-276.

Dann, G. M. S. 1981. “Tourist Motivation: An appraisal”. Annals of Tourism Research, 8:187-219.

Echner, C.M. y Ritchie, B.1993. “The measurement of Destination Imagen: An empirical assessment”. Journal of Travel Research, 31 (4): 3-13.

Fakeye, P.C. y Crompton, J.L. 1991. “Image differences between Pro- spective, First-Time, and epeat Visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley”. Journal of Travel Research, 30 (2): 10-16.

Fisk, G. 1961-1962. “A Conceptual Model for Studying Consumer Image”. Journal of Travel Research, 37 (4): 1-8.Friedgen, J.D. (1987). Use of cognitive maps to determine perceived tourism regions. Leisure Sciences, 9, 101-117.

Gartner, W. 1993. “Image Formation Process”. Jour- nal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2: 191-216.

Goodall, B. 1990. “How tourists choose their holidays : An Analytical Framework”. En Goodall, B, y Ashworth, G. (Eds.), Marketing in the toruism industry: The Promotion of Destination Regions (pp. 1-17). London: Routledge.

Goodrich, J. N. 1978. “The Relationship between preferences for an perceptions of vacation Destination”. Journal of Travel Research, 17 (2): 8-13.

Grönroos , C. 1978. “A Service Oriented Approach to Marketing of Services”. European Journal of Marketing, 12 (3): 588-601.

Gunn, C. 1972. Vacationscape: Designing tourist regions. Austin: Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas. Hanyu, K. 1993. “The affective meaning of Tokyo: Verbal and Nonverbal Approaches”. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13: 161-172.

Holbrook, M-B. 1978. “Beyond attitude structure: Toward the informational determinants of attitude”. Journal of Marketing Research, 15 (Nov): 545-556.

Hughes, K. 1991. “Tourist satisfaction: A guided ‘cultural’ tour in North Queensland”. Australian Psychologist, 26: 166-171.

Hunt, J.D. 1975. “Image as a Factor in Tourism Development”. Journal of Travel Re- search, 13 (3): 1-7.

Husbands, W. 1989. “Social status and perception of tourism in Zambia”. Annals of Tour- ism Research, 16 (2): 237-253.

Iso-Ahola, S.E. 1982. “Toward a Social Psychological Theory of Tourism Motivation: A Re- joinder”. Annals of Tourism Research, 9: 256-262

MaKay, K. J. y Fesemaier, D.R. 1997. “Pictorial Element of Destination in Image Formation”. Annals of Tourism Research, 24: 537-565.

Maslow, A. H. 1954, 1991. Motivación y Personalidad. Madrid: Ediciones Díaz Santos.

Mayo, E.J. 1973. “Regional images and regional travel destination”. En Procedings of the fourth annual Conference of Travel and Tourism Research Association (pp. 211-217). Salt Lake City UT : TTRA

Mayo, E.J. y Jarvis, L.P. 1981. The Psychology of Leisure Travel. Boston: CBI. Mercer, D. 1971. “The role of perception in the recreation experience: A review and Discussion”. Journal of Leisure Research, 3: 261-276.

Mill, R. C.y Morrison, A.M. 1992. The Tourist System: An introductory text. Englewood NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Milman, A. y Pizam, A. 1995. “The roe of awareness and familiarity with a destination: The Central Florida Case”. Journal of Tourism Re- search, 33 (3): 21-27.

Moutinho, L. 1987. “Consumer Behavior in Tourism”. European Journal of Marketing, 21 (10): 5-44.

Nickel, P. y Wertheimer, A.I. 1979. „Factors affecting consunmers’ images and choices of Drugstores”. Journal of Retailing, 55 (2): 71-78.

Oliver, R.L. y Swan, J. 1989a. “Consumer perceptions of inter- personal equity and satisfaction in transactions: a field survey approach”,

Journal of Marketing, 53: 21-35. Oliver, R.L. y Swan, J. 1989b. “Equity and disconfirmation perceptions as influences on merchant and product satisfaction”, Journal of Marketing, 16: 372-383.

Pearce, P.L. 1982a. “Perceived changes in holiday destinations”. Annals of Tourism Re- search, 9: 145-164.

Pearce, P.L. (1995a). Pleasure travel motivation. En McIntosh, R.W.; Goeldner, C.R. y Brent Ritchie, J.R. (Eds.), Tourism: Principles, Philosophics (7ª ed.) (pp.167-178). New York: Wiley.

Pearce, P. L y Caltabiano, M. 1983. “Inferring Travel Motivation from Travelers’ Experiences”. Journal of Travel Research, 22 (1): 16-20.

Pearce, P.L., y Caltabiano, N. J. 1982. “Gesture decoding and encoding in children: The effects of ethnicity, age and sex”. Australian Journal of Psychology, 34: 17-24.

Ross, E. D. e Iso-Ahola, S. E. 1991. “Sighseeing tourist’s motivation and satisfaction”. Annals of Tourism Research, 18: 226-238.

Ross, G. F. 1993. “Destination evaluation and vacation preferences”. Annals of Tourism Research, 20 (3): 477-489.

Sheth, J.N. 1983. “An Integrative Theory of patron- age preference and behavior”. En Dar- den, W. R. y Lusch, R.F. (Eds.), Patronage Behavior and retail Management, New York: Elsevier Science.

Stabler, M.J. 1990. “The image of destination regions: Theoretical and empirical aspects”. En Goodall, B. y Ashworth, G. (Eds.), Marketing in the tourism industry: The promotion of destination regions (pp. 133-161). London: Routledge.

Stern, E. y Krakover, S. 1993. “The formation of a composite urban image”. Geographical Analysis, 25 (2): 130-146.

Um, S. 1993. “Pleasure travel destination choice”. En Khan, M.; Olsen, M. y Var, T: (Eds.), VNR’s Enciclopedia of Hospitality and tourism (pp. 811-821). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Um, S. y Crompton, J.L. 1990. « Attitude determinants in tourism destination choice”. Annals of Tourism Research, 17: 432-448.

Uysal, M. y Hagan, L.A.R. 1993. “Motivation and pleasure travel and tourism”. En Khan, M.; Olsen, M. y Var, T (Eds.), VNR’s Encyclopedia of Hospitality and Tourism (pp. 798-810). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Varela, J. 1991. “Satisfacción/insatisfacción de los consumidores y comportamientos post- consumo derivados”, Estudios sobre consumo, 23: 65-78.

Walmsley, D. J.y Jenkins, J. M. 1993. “Appraisive images of tourist areas: application of personal construct”. Australian Geographer, 24 (2): 1-13.

Woodside, A.G. y Lysonski, S. 1989. “A general Model of traveller destination choice”. Journal of Travel Research, 27 (4): 8-14.

Publicado
2006-10-15
Cómo citar
Castaño, J., Moreno, A., & Crego, A. (2006). Factores psicosociales y formación de imágenes en el turismo urbano: un estudio de caso sobre Madrid. PASOS Revista De Turismo Y Patrimonio Cultural, 4(3), 287-299. https://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2006.04.020